Scientists still haven’t produced an explanation for why the rate of expansion of the Universe is high and higher than expected since it was discovered to be expanding quickly in 1999. One implausible theory is that Alien universe-jackers are in the process of heisting it.
Numerous theories arise to attempt an explanation. An alternative universe is pushing it aside from the inside out with its quanta having little interaction with mass-energy in this Universe- mostly just acting on spatial dimension content.
I prefer simple accounts. So the idea that dark energy and dark matter compounding as a reflection of the electro-magnetic field scores some points with me. The limit of expansion might be made into a formula with elements such as the maximum rate of expansion reciprocally equals the dark energy and matter equivalent of E = mc2
Light is a carrier of electromagnetic force, in its form as a virtual particle. Nothing travels faster than light because the largest field in existence is electro-magnetic. All mass-energy in fields that travels far is electro-magnetic. Photons that aren’t virtual don’t interact with other photons in the field and are the fastest particle/wave in the universe known.
The other field in the Universe that is equally as quick as photons in the electro-magnetic field is gravity. Gravity is attracted to mass and has the speed characteristics of photons in an electro-magnetic field. So one might think that gravity is related to the electro-magnetic field in some way with gravitons being a dark photon that seeks to ground itself in mass.
If gravitons have a charge that locks itself into mass, that charge might be related to the expansion of space. Gravity apparently is a local phenomenon in the same way that electro-magnetic fields are. The wonder is that there might not be a transcendent Universal field, though the concatenated effects of localized gravity act universally in relation to matter.