One may make certain assumptions regarding what causality is, or when it is, that may not be accurate. One tends to regard causality as an element occurring in time, or along a time line from alpha to omega, perhaps at some time omicron or whenever, and that might disregard the non-linear factors that coincide with an event that requires preceding ’causes’ or conditions to exist. That is causality may proceed from numerous, perhaps an infinite number of axis or vectors such as x or x and y or x,y, z axes through infinity.
So one has the question of what a particular point event on a single infinite line has as qualities that differentiates it from preceding events on the continuum of time materially flowing (if time actually occurs as relative positions among numerous or plural ‘objects’ rather than as a hypothetical abstract dimension for mathematical purposes.
Then one wonders how an infinite timeline without beginning or end has differentiable causes, perhaps such as material forms that comprise quarks, strings or humans, or maybe sentient though in-itself, as it develops through a Universe or Metaverse from eternity without beginning or end, yet strewn with countless Universes in theory that occur with some unusual relationship between themselves that some physical cosmologists speculate would exist like an eternally branching tree packed fractal like with infinite numbers of universes within and without itself because of the way ifninite dimensions can pack. That paradigm with quantum fields of some sort generating virtual particles that become entangled and locked into a steady state of matter that supposedly is a secondary quality of energy may not require causes to be.
That may seem somewhat sketchy, yet causality may be something humans think about because of the appearance of pluralism rather than monism concerning mass and stars etc. Yet particles pick up mass in the Higgs field from their normal two-dimensional condition as energy as they slow to sub-light velocity as get the appearance of a third dimension (in time). It could be that the existence of the quantum field at some deep level is eternal and the appearance of various forms and change of matter is contingent being. The pre-Socratics Parmenides and Heraclitus were concerned with similar issues. God is spirit. Spirit differs from contingent mass and energy. Foe humans though observing mass and energy in various forms and considering the temporal forms that it takes are great inquires and even rather sporting. If God wills things to exist eternally he could. Cosmologists tend to believe that Universes, big bangs and inflatons may occur infinitely too. Lorentz transformations are interesting ways to consider where things are in time from the viewpoint of different observers. One might develop a similar equation to apply to the Metaverse and decide if anything was really a cause of anything else or if it all was a thought of God’s without beginning or end in time or its temporal forms.
Time seems inseparable from thermodynamic change, that is from the particles and energy that comprise it. Time may be equivalence of motion of wavicles measured uniformly in a sector en mass. The Lorentz transformation is a formula used in special relativity to coordinate perspectives of two different observers concerning time. Changes in physical systems occur in a given system of physical values often set by the local strength of gravity and pace of motion. Time is a measurement or quantification of the rate of change locally.